According to the Qur'an, the Kaaba was re-built by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismāʿīl (Ishmael). The Kaaba is believed by Muslims to have been rebuilt several times throughout history, most famously by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismail (Ishmael), when he returned to the valley of Mecca several years after leaving his wife Hajar (Hagar) and Ismail there upon Allah's command. ", And remember Ibrahim and Ismail raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): "Our Lord! The Kaaba has been destroyed, damaged, and subsequently rebuilt several times since. Muslims turn in its direction when … The Kaʿbah housed the deities of visitors as well as the Meccans’ supra-tribal creator and covenant-guaranteeing deity, called Allāh. "[14] Armstrong further says that the Kaaba was thought to be at the center of the world, with the Gate of Heaven directly above it. Grunebaum in Classical Islam points out that the experience of divinity of that period was often associated with the fetishism of stones, mountains, special rock formations, or "trees of strange growth. A similar view is printed on the obverse side of 500-riyal (approximately 133 USD) notes in Saudi Arabia. The Kaaba is a cube-shaped building in Mecca held to be sacred both by Muslims and pre-Islamic polytheistic tribes. Kaaba (Ka'abah or Ka'ba) Central shrine of Islam, located in the Great Mosque in Mecca.In prayer, Muslims face the meridian that passes through the Kaaba. Most Arabs probably viewed this deity as one among many, possessing powers not specific to a particular tribe; others may have identified this figure with…, In Muhammad’s view, the Kaʿbah had been dedicated to the aniconic worship of the one God (Allāh) by Abraham, who fathered the ancestor of the Israelites, Isḥāq (Isaac), as well as the ancestor of the Arabs, Ismāʿīl (Ishmael). [80] Members of the tribe greet visitors to the inside of the Kaaba on the occasion of the cleaning ceremony. [55] According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad spared a painting of Mary and Jesus, and a fresco of Abraham. Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo, Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr). Tradition holds that it was originally a simple unroofed rectangular structure. Professor Juan Cole is of the opinion that the inscription is likely from the second century A.H. (c. 718 – 815 AD). His first action was to remove statues and images from the Kaaba. It is located inside the Grand Mosque in Makkah (Mecca) Saudi Arabia. Crone argues that if Mecca had been a well-known center of trade, it would have been mentioned by later authors such as Procopius, Nonnosus, or the Syrian church chroniclers writing in Syriac. [8] There were paintings of idols decorating the walls. If possible, Muslims are to kiss or touch it, but this is often not possible because of the large crowds. [3][4] According to the Saudi Ministry of Hajj and Umrah, 6,791,100 pilgrims arrived for the Umrah pilgrimage in the Islamic year 1439 AH,[a] a 3.6% increase from the previous year, with 2,489,406 others arriving for the 1440 AH Hajj. [44] However, Ian D. Morris argues that Gibbon had misread the source: Diodorus puts the temple too far north for it to have been Mecca.[45]. The early history of the Kaaba is not well known, but it is certain that in the period before the rise of Islam it was a polytheist sanctuary and was a site of pilgrimage for people throughout the Arabian Peninsula. The Ka'aba is considered the center of the Muslim world and is a unifying focal point for Islamic worship. Caretakers anoint the marble cladding with the same scented oil used to anoint the Black Stone outside. [23], The Qur'an contains several verses regarding the origin of the Kaaba. The idol was made of red agate and shaped like a human, but with the right hand broken off and replaced with a golden hand. The Kaaba is a cube-shaped building in Mecca held to be sacred both by Muslims and pre-Islamic polytheistic tribes. Each pilgrim who undertakes the Hajj circles the shrine seven times, touching the Black Stone for forgiveness. [81], The Governor of the Makkah Province and accompanying dignitaries clean the interior of the Kaaba using cloths dipped in Zamzam water scented with Oud perfume. Mecca is also the birthplace of Muhammad. Marble stripe marking the beginning and end of each circumambulation. [62] The Kaaba's appearance has not changed since then. with alternating courses of masonry and wood. After the construction was complete, God enjoined the descendants of Ishmael to perform an annual pilgrimage: the Hajj and the Korban, sacrifice of cattle. Beginning Wednesday, nearly 1.5 million people will flock to … The Kaaba has been repaired and reconstructed many times. [76] The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to God. Both the roof and ceiling (collectively dual-layered) are made of stainless steel-capped teak wood. OK, this isn’t strictly true, but due to a lack of flood defences and … The Kaaba returned to the cube shape it had taken during Muhammad's time. One is that the shrine was a place of worship for angels (mala'ikah) before the creation of man. This short Nestorian (Christian origin) chronicle written no later than the 660s CE covers the history up to the Arab conquest and also gives an interesting note on Arabian geography. Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasūl Allāh, one of the biographies of Muhammad (as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume), describes Muhammad settling a quarrel between the Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone in its place. The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in) above the ground area where tawaf is performed. These include the Creator, the King, the Almighty, and the All-Seer. ", After the conquest, Muhammad restated the sanctity and holiness of Mecca, including its Masjid al-Haram, in Islam. [77][78] To be in a state of Wudu (ablution) is mandatory while performing tawaf as it is considered to be a form of worship ('ibadah). According to tradition, this stone was given to Adam on his expulsion from paradise in order to obtain forgiveness of his sins. "[19] According to historian Eduard Glaser, the name "Kaaba" may have been related to the southern Arabian or Ethiopian word "mikrab", signifying a temple. Shia definition is - the Muslims of the branch of Islam comprising sects believing in Ali and the Imams as the only rightful successors of Muhammad and in the concealment and messianic return of the last recognized Imam. The Qur’an refers to Allah as the Lord of the Worlds. There was a "Red Stone", in the Kaaba of the South Arabian city of Ghaiman; and the "White Stone" in the Kaaba of al-Abalat (near modern-day Tabala). - Definition, Pilgrimage & History to learn more. [41] A recent study has revisited the arguments for Macoraba and found them unsatisfactory. Ibrahim and Ismail rebuilt the Kaaba on the old foundations. 'Honored Ka'bah'), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Pilgrims go around the Kaaba (the most sacred site in Islam) seven times in a counterclockwise direction; the first three at a hurried pace on the outer part of the Mataaf and the latter four times closer to the Kaaba at a leisurely pace. The history and form of the Kaaba The Kaaba was a sanctuary in pre-Islamic times. the position or rank of a khan. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kaaba-shrine-Mecca-Saudi-Arabia, Sacred Destinations - Kaaba, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, The David Collection - Mecca and the Kaaba. During Muhammad's lifetime (570–632 CE), the Kaaba was considered a holy site by the local Arabs. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Circling the Kaaba seven times counterclockwise, known as Tawaf (Arabic: طواف‎, romanized: tawaaf), is an obligatory rite for the completion of the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. Muslims orient themselves toward this shrine during the five daily prayers, bury their dead facing its meridian, and cherish the ambition of visiting it on pilgrimage, or hajj, in accord with the command set out in the Qurʾān. noun. Pilgrimage to the Kaaba is a duty for all Muslims. ", Ibn Kathir, in his famous exegesis (tafsir) of the Quran, mentions two interpretations among the Muslims on the origin of the Kaaba. Allah is also t… These key objectives will be accomplished at the completion of the lesson review: Identify how long Mecca has been considered a holy city by Muslims American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. [Quran 2:143–144] The direction faced during prayer is the direction of where the Kaaba is, relative to the person praying. Arabian Cities The most important of these cities was Mecca, which was an important center of trade in the area, as well as the location of the Kaaba (or Ka'ba), one of the most revered shrines in polytheistic Arabia. kaaba qibla mecca, compass to kaaba, facts about kaaba, kaaba originally, kaaba mecca saudi arabia, kaaba allah, kaaba definition world history Kaaba definition: a cube-shaped building in Mecca , the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine , into which is... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [82], Building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram, This article is about the Islamic holy site in Mecca. The Qibla is the direction faced during prayer. [43] Edward Gibbon believed that this was the Kaaba. The sacred nature of the site predates Islam: tradition says that the Kaaba was built by Adam and rebuilt by Abraham and the descendants of Noah. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. They are also to chant the Basmala and Takbir each time they complete one revolution. Muslims believe that the Kaaba was built by the command of Allah. n. A Muslim shrine in Mecca toward which the faithful turn to pray. [10] Circumambulation was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women. A statue of Hubal (the principal idol of Mecca) and statues of other pagan deities are known to have been placed in or around the Kaaba. Muhammad asked his hearers not to embrace something new but to…, …place for Muslims is the Kaʿbah sanctuary at Mecca, the object of the annual pilgrimage. The Black Stone and the Maqam Ibrahim are believed by Muslims to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham as the remaining structure had to be demolished and rebuilt several times over history for its maintenance. During the Hajj of 930 CE, the Shi'ite Qarmatians attacked Mecca under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi, defiled the Zamzam Well with the bodies of pilgrims and stole the Black Stone, taking it to the oasis in Eastern Arabia known as al-Aḥsāʾ, where it remained until the Abbasids ransomed it in 952 CE. A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 22:29. The fall of the city and the death of 'Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr allowed the Umayyads under 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan to finally reunite all the Islamic possessions and end the long civil war. Many Muslim and academic historians stress the power and importance of the pre-Islamic Mecca. The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, and there are several more tablets along the other walls. 'The Cube', Arabic pronunciation: [kaʕ.bah]), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة‎, romanized: al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah, lit. The Kaaba is depicted on the reverse of 500 Saudi riyal, and the 2000 Iranian rial banknotes.[63]. "The Kaaba is a large masonry structure roughly the shape of a cube. …to a local shrine, the Kaʿbah. [37], While Abraham was building the Kaaba, an angel brought to him the Black Stone which he placed in the eastern corner of the structure. [Quran 22:26–33], According to Islamic tradition, over the millennia after Ishmael's death, his progeny and the local tribes who settled around the Zamzam well gradually turned to polytheism and idolatry. [Arabic ka'ba, cube, cubic structure, from ka'aba, to swell, be full (said of breasts); see kʕb in Semitic roots .] The most current dimensions for the structure are: 15 m high (49') with sides measuring 10.5 m (34') by 12 m (39'). Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their gods in the Kaaba and trade with each other in the city. [15], According to Sarwar, about 400 years before the birth of Muhammad, a man named 'Amr bin Luhayy, who descended from Qahtan and was the king of Hijaz placed an idol of Hubal on the roof of the Kaaba. The interior walls, measuring 13 m × 9 m (43 ft × 30 ft), are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. It is made of granite from the hills near Mecca. Kaaba, also spelled Kaʿbah, small shrine located near the centre of the Great Mosque in Mecca and considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most sacred spot on Earth. The building has a mosque built around it, the Masjid al-Haram. [56][55][57], Narrated Abdullah: When the Prophet entered Mecca on the day of the conquest, there were 360 idols around the Kaaba. The Kaaba with the signature minarets. The section covering the geography starts with a speculation about the origin of the Muslim sanctuary in Arabia: "Regarding the K'bta (Kaaba) of Abraham, we have been unable to discover what it is except that, because the blessed Abraham grew rich in property and wanted to get away from the envy of the Canaanites, he chose to live in the distant and spacious parts of the desert. The ceiling itself is of a darker colour, similar in hue to the lower trimming. [9] However, by the time of Muhammad's era, it seems that the Kaaba was venerated as the shrine of Allah, the High God. When the month of pilgrimages (Dhū al-Ḥijjah) is over, a ceremonial washing of the Kaaba takes place; religious officials as well as pilgrims take part. [18] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "before the rise of Islam, it was revered as a sacred sanctuary and was a site of pilgrimage. It is much more than a mosque; it is believed to be the place where the heavenly bliss and power touches the earth directly. Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their gods in the Kaaba and trade with each other in the city. ; Kaʿba. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A statue of Hubal(the principal idol of Mecca) and statues of other pagan deities are known to have been placed in or around the Kaaba. Apart from praying, Muslims generally consider facing the Qibla while reciting the Quran to be a part of good etiquette. Every Muslim who makes the pilgrimage is required to walk around the Kaaba seven times, during which he or she kisses and touches the Black Stone. Behold! Per a hypothesis by Uri Rubin and Christian Robin, Hubal was only venerated by Quraysh and the Kaaba was first dedicated to Allah, a supreme god of individuals belonging to different tribes, while the pantheon of the gods of Quraysh was installed in Kaaba after they conquered Mecca a century before Muhammad's time. The Quraysh tribe, who ruled Mecca, rebuilt the pre-Islamic Kaaba in c. 608 C.E. Updates? [74][75] and Bayt Allah al-Haram (Arabic: بيت الله الحرام‎, romanized: Bayt Allah il-Haram, lit. Is printed on the occasion of the ruling Quraysh tribe, who ruled Mecca kaaba definition world history city, located in three... Rebuilt several times since has revisited the arguments for Macoraba and found them unsatisfactory housed the deities of area... ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article the word Ka'bah ( Arabic: )! Verses regarding the origin of the walls runs a Black cloth embroidered with gold verses... 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